Hamilton Lake Association


Welcome to Hamilton Lake

Poker Run 2017

The 2017 version of the Hamilton Lake Poker Run was a smashing success.  It had a beautiful day and great fun for all entrants.  Remember, the first Poker Run, in 2011, had 495 ticket holders and brought in $6500.  This year’s version had 1290 ticketholders and cleared a grand total of $35,827.  In seven years, this event has brought in an astounding $129, 405.  Congratulations and kudos to   Tonya Peters and all the HLA volunteers who helped make this such a brilliant success.  The HLA’s consistent goal of maintaining a healthy and beautiful lake owes much to this event.

A Critical Concern NOW:   Water Quality Concerns for Hamilton Lake   


     Over the past five years the Steuben County Lakes Council has taken water quality samples in Black Creek, the largest tributary of Hamilton Lake. For the past two years in Fish Creek a tributary of the St. Joseph River.  During May and June sampling this year we recorded alarming increases in the concentrations of bacteria and phosphorus in the waters of these streams. Hamilton Lake received concentrations that averaged 13.5 times higher than the state standards for bacteria this summer.  In response to these results, additional samples upstream were taken in an effort to pinpoint the source of this contamination.  These samples, along with another round of testing in July, indicate that livestock near the ditches flowing into Black Creek and Fish Creek are a major contributor to these high readings. 


  We realize there can be other contributors such as faulty septic systems and wildlife that can make additional inputs to the high bacteria readings.  Also, other types of farming activities besides livestock contribute to the elevated phosphorus concentrations.  But with roadside observations within the watersheds and a fly-over, the major source is obvious.  Sure, the heaver rains of May and June caused increase runoff, but the concentration of bacteria is still three times higher than the standard for recreational use water during a much dryer July.  Recreational use is what Hamilton Lake is all about.  The demand for the unique recreation opportunities that a high-speed boating lake with good water quality provides is what creates a premium price for lake residential property.


Therefore, the main reasons for concern is that the high bacteria readings of this summer can cause health problems for swimmers, tubers, and water skiers.  Also, high phosphorus inputs enhance algae growth which in abundance can produce toxins.  The nutrient phosphorus also stimulates aquatic vegetation growth.  The current cost of controlling aquatic weeds that interfere with boating activities is already more than most association members want to pay.


The town of Hamilton and the properties around the lakes have already made a significant investment in reducing bacteria and nutrient inputs into the lake by investing in a central sewage treatment facility a few years ago with monthly user costs.  The lake users don’t want their efforts overwhelmed by the high levels of bacteria and nutrients coming in with the Black Creek inflow.


A similar but larger problem exists in the Fish Creek Watershed with readings as high as 12,900 colony forming units per 100 milliliters of E coli bacteria that will be passed down stream to the drinking water supply of Fort Wayne.  Also reducing phosphorus runoff to the streams has been a focused effort in the   Western Lake Erie Basin since the large algal blooms in Lake Erie and Grand Lake St Marys.  The Black Creek and Fish Creek watersheds should do their fair share to accomplish this goal.


 As the dynamics of farming activities in both the watersheds of Black Creek and Fish Creek have changed over the years, we cannot afford to let the byproducts of the current farming operations negatively impact the well-being of the people and water resources downstream.


  Over the past ten years the SCLC has conducted a water quality testing project to garner information regarding the condition of the county’s lakes. It is our goal to discover where problems exist then guide the lake associations in seeking solutions. Hopefully, the Hamilton Lake Association will be able to establish open communication with parties involved and establish methods to prevent future problems.

Pete Hippensteel


Hamilton Lake Association


2017 Annual Meeting

June 17, 2017

Questions/Concerns from Annual Membership Meeting for DNR

Is it legal for lake property owners to obstruct the water flow by putting fencing in water to keep leaves from coming onto their beach but backs up to another person's property?

     Because you cannot restrict any part of the lake from the public, this would not be legal without a permit from the Division of Water.  Any rope, fence, pier, or any type of physical boundary that blocks off a part of the water, regardless of how small, is always illegal.  Division of Water, (877) WATER55 is their phone number.

Is there a limit on fishing tournaments on the lake?  One example of concern: on Sunday, June 11th, there was a 45 minute wait to take boats out or put them in; and, Lane 150 was congested and blocked because of the back-up for the public access .

     There are no limits on fishing tournaments on our lakes.

Do the fishing clubs/organizations donate to the lake?

     Fishing clubs that donate to lake enhancement aren’t reported to us.  There is a part of the registration of the boats that goes to the LARE fund.

What are the rules for egress/ingress and how can we educate public about the DNR rules/laws for egress/ingress? 

     Egress and ingress is an easy issue. Essentially you must have permission to access the lake from the landowner of where you access the lake.  A deeded easement stating ingress\egress is a legal order which allows those who are deeded the easement to cross someone else’s property to access the lake at that specified easement.  Many are specific to details concerning the activities allowed.  Those specifications are in their deed.

What are the rules for operating jet skis and how can we educate public about the DNR rules/laws for operating jet skis? 

     The rules are in Indiana Code 14-15-12.  We provide Boater Education classes for free.

Is the whole of the millpond a "no wake" area?

     There are no laws that state “no wake.”  If you are closer than 200ft from shore, anywhere on the lake, then you must operate at idle speed.  Idle speed does throw some wake, and is basically the slowest speed you can operate and still maintain maneuverability of your boat and under 5 miles per hour. 


Hamilton Lake Association      July, 2017 Minutes

Janet Albright called the meeting to order at 7:15 p.m. with the following present: Janet Albright, Tonya Peters, Dave Castor, Ginny DeBrunner, Jan Biddle, Dennis Germann, Linda Skelly, Jim Wagenknecht, Valerie Fetters, Clint Nester, Ron Abraham, and Cathy Wagenknecht.  Twelve in attendance.

Minutes of the June 2017 meeting were approved as e-mailed.  A motion was made by Dave Castor and second by Clint Nester.  Motion carried.

Treasurer’s Report: Income of $8,947.00 for weed spray was received in June.  LARE Grant of $35,000.00 was received.  Total income for June was $45,610.00.  June expenses included $11,310.00 for algae treatment.  Weed treatment paid to date is $159,789.00 for weed spray and $11,310.00 for algae.  Scott Banfield will be on the lake next Tuesday collecting data and will decide if we need to do a weed spray bump.  Total Expenses for June were $12,334.00.  Bank balance as of 6/30/17 was $251,934.00.  A motion to approve the financial report was made by Jan Biddle and second by Tonya Peters.  Motion carried.

Membership and Communication: Most flags and decals have been distributed.  We ordered 250 “Supporting Member” HL decals.

Wildlife: Jim continues his efforts to make contact, to gather information regarding a goose round-up.

Grievance and General Welfare:

1. Environmental Concerns: Discussion took place regarding water testing results. There is much concern due to high levels of e-coli and phosphorus.  Samples in May were e-coli 2,613, phosphorus .439.  June levels were e-coli 6,017 and phosphorus 0.151.  Locations of concern were samples collected near Black Creek and State Road 1.  E-coli level was 6,498 near the Schmucker CAFO area.  The Steuben County Lakes Council has expressed concern regarding these test results. Janet will pull information from the BZA meeting regarding the Schmucker CAFO.  The HLA will ask Pete Hippensteel to write a letter to the editor of the local newspapers.  Jim will contact the Army Corp of Engineers.  The HLA board feels it is their responsibility to contact various sources, organizations, and community leaders in order to make the community residents aware.  The HLA noticed higher readings of samples taken (near the CAFO) which are being done by the Steuben County Lakes Council Water Quality Committee.  Last year, the HLA board voted to pay for additional water quality testing near the CAFO.

2. Buoys: Dennis reported that we need to purchase buoys.  Our orange buoys are 16” and cost approximately $85 each.  He has been looking into a luminated 20” buoy through a company, Aqua Lantern.com which costs approximately $230.  There was discussion.  A motion was made by Tonya Peters and a second made by Jan Biddle to purchase 4 of the luminated buoys.  Motion carried.  There was also discussion regarding the “no wake” buoys in the Crystal Bay/Crystal Cove area.


Legislative and Council Coordination:

 Steuben County Lakes Council: Annual meeting will be August 5.  The speaker will be a historian of the Steuben County lakes.  Topics of discussion will also include water quality testing and the DNR.

Old Business:

1. Board of Directors:  Names of potential candidates were made available.  In further discussion, a motion was made to vote Cathy Wagenknecht to the board, representing District #2.  The motion was made first by Tonya Peters and second by Clint Nester.  The motion carried.

2. Fishing Tournaments: The DNR do not regulate tournaments on Hamilton Lake.  The lake association and the town need to work together.  To regulate, there is a process to follow.

3. Annual Meeting: Follow up topics includes the fishing tournaments, Millpond speed/wake rules, and questions for Conservation/DNR Officer.

4. Boat Poker Run: Volunteers are needed.  A sound system is rented and there will be port- a- johns.  Shifts will be 8:30 – 12:00 noon and 2:00 – 5:00 p.m.  Tonya called Reese Excavating regarding the parking lot project.

New Business:

 Election of Officers: Discussion was made to create a new office on the board as Co-President.  This will be a shared position of the President and Co-President.  A motion to move forward with this was made by Tonya Peters and second by Ron Abraham.  Motion carried.  The slate of officers was presented, motions were approved and voting was unanimous in favor. 

 The newly elected officers are as follow:

President   Janet Albright   (Motion: Tonya & Ron)

Co-President   Cathy Wagenknecht  (Motion: Tonya & Ron)

Vice President   Peggy Hayden   (Motion: Jan & Cathy)

Secretary   Linda Skelly   (Motion: Jan & Tonya)

Treasurer   Dennis Germann  (Motion: Jan & Dave)

 The updated web-site and data base project is in progress.

A motion to adjourn was made by Ron Abraham and second by Clint Nester.  Motion carried and the meeting adjourned at 8:39 p.m.       Secretary, Linda Skelly

June, 2017 Minutes


Minutes of the Board of Directors

June 13, 2017

Janet Albright called the meeting to order at 7:04 p.m.  The following members were present: Janet Albright, Dave Castor, Ginny DeBrunner, Peggy Hayden, Dennis Germann, Linda Skelly, Jim Wagenknecht, Val Fetters, and Ron Abraham.  Nine in attendance. 

Minutes of the May meeting were approved as e-mailed.  A motion was made by Val Fetters and a second by Peggy Hayden.  Motion carried.

Treasurer’s Report: Per his calculations, Dennis estimates that 708 lots have paid weed spray.  LARE Grant of $35,000.00 has been received.  This arrived in June and will appear on the June Financial Report.  The financial report ending 5/31/17 was presented.  The bank balance as of 5/31/17 was $218,658.00.  A motion to approve the report was made by Dave Castor and second by Ron Abraham.  Motion carried.  The HLA financial status was reviewed.

Membership and Communication:  We need “Supporting Member” HL decals for distribution.  After discussion, a motion was made to award all businesses including the Chamber who pay weed spray a membership flag.  The motion was made by Dave Castor and second by Dennis Germann.  Motion carried.

Wildlife: Committee continues to monitor.  Research into a goose round-up continues.

Weed Spray: Dennis Germann and Scott Banfield were on the lake today.  Scott is very pleased.  The Curly-leaf Pondweed is down and the milfoil results take about 6 weeks after treatment.

Grievance and General Welfare: Buoys are in good shape.

Legislative and Council Coordination:

1 Hamilton Town Council: Jim Wagenknecht will attend the next meeting. .

2 Steuben County Lakes Council: Jim shared test results of the water samples taken in May.

3 101 Lakes Trust: Janet said the trust is looking into doing “Reflections” this year on Ball Lake; however, this has not been confirmed.

Old Business:

1 Directors: Keep thinking.  Still in need of 2 Directors for District #2 and 1 Director for District #4.

2 Annual Meeting: June 17, 2017.  Went over an agenda and who’s doing what.  Scott Bandfield will be present.  Hope to have paddle board raffle tickets.  Board members should arrive at 8:00 a.m.

3 There was discussion regarding questions for the DNR and the process to get answers.

4 Website: Trine University will assist in the website project.


Next board meeting will be July 11.  A motion to adjourn was made by Peggy Hayden and second by Ron Abraham.  Motion carried.  Meeting adjourned at 8:20 p.m.


Pete Hippensteel book, Steuben County Lakes

It is with great pleasure that the Steuben County Lakes Council is sponsoring Pete Hippensteel’s book called “Steuben County Lakes – 200 Years of change to our lakes from 1816 to 2016.” Pete worked on a Power Point presentation regarding the lakes and we encouraged him to put it in print. He spent many hours adding to the presentation, changing the presentation, improving the presentation until he finally came up with a beautiful presentation we hope you will all have a chance to read. The book is mostly in photographs which lead you from the early days of lake formation up to today. You will read in it about early settlers developing dams to provide lumber and grain mills. You will read about the cement making by dredging the marl from the shorelines of many of our lakes. You will discover how railroads were built to get people to the hotels on many of the lakes. You will be able to review the agriculture process and its use of drainage which changed many of our lakes over the 200 years. There is much more you can discover if you have the opportunity to read his material. The book is at the printers and will be ready for distribution in about two weeks. The Lakes Council Board voted at the June Board meeting to order a first printing of 100 books. We wish to use this as an educational outlet and will be providing the books as a gift to various county folks such as the local libraries and schools etc. The rest of the books will be offered for sale at cost at the SCLC Annual Meeting in August. Hope you will watch for this opportunity and enjoy reading this really neat publication. Wanted you all to know about this upcoming publication

May 9, 2017 HLA Board Minutes


Minutes of the Board of Directors

May 9, 2017

Janet Albright called the meeting to order at 7:07 p.m. with the following members present: Jim Wagenknecht, Peggy Hayden, Linda Skelly, Val Fetters, Ginny DeBrunner, Pat Morello, Clint Nester, Jan Biddle, and Tonya Peters.  Cathy Wagenknecht and Scott Banfield were also in attendance. There were 10 board members and 2 guests present.

Scott Banfield gave weed treatment report.  A “whole” lake treatment was done on April 25, 2017, using the chemical Fluridone.  There has been a lot of flushing with the rain.  Next Tuesday will be 1st round of essay to see what type of plants are growing and then will continue to monitor.  Treated approximately 147.7 acres of Curly-leaf Pondweed and 166 acres of Eurasian Watermilfoil.  The goal is to maintain a Fluridone concentration of 2-4 parts per billion for at least 126 days.  If the concentration level falls below 2ppb, then will do another (bump dose) treatment.  An algae treatment may be done in June.  After discussion regarding algae, a motion was made by Pat Morello and second by Jim Wagenknecht to do an algae treatment before May 28th, if Scott’s schedule allows.  Motion carried.

Minutes of the April 2017 meeting were presented and approved as e-mailed.  Motion of approval was made by Pat Morello and second by Clint Nester.  Motion carried.

Treasurers Report: Report by Jim Wagenknecht.  Paid weed treatment invoice in the amount of $159,789.00.  Bank balance as of 4/30/17 was $209,579.00.  Motion to approve report made by Tonya Peters and second by Peggy Hayden.  Motion carried.

Grievance and General Welfare:

Buoys in tomorrow.  The pontoon and lift are ready to go.

Membership: Monies coming in. Preparation is in progress for the mailing of weed spray reminders and the announcement of the annual meeting.

Wildlife: Treatment of swan and goose nests has been done.  Jim will look into a goose round up.

Weed Control: See Scott’s report above.

Legislative and Council Coordination:

Ø Steuben County Lakes Council:  Jim gave update on area lakes.  3 lakes have reported concerns with beaver.  The council meets 1st Saturday of the month.  Note: Scott said that West Otter does not have starry stonewort weed as reported in our last month minutes; however, 4 other area lakes do.  Jim and Scott continue to work together on water testing.

Ø 101 Lakes Trust: Janet gave update.

Old Business:

Board of Directors:  Ralph Traycoff (District #5) and Pat Morello (District #3) have given their resignation.  Clint Nester (District #4) will now represent District #5 to fill that vacancy.  Jan Biddle (District #2) will eventually represent District #3, once someone is found who is willing to serve in District #2.  In summary, directors now needed are 2 for District #2 and 1 for District #4.

New Business:

Ø Annual Meeting: Date set for Saturday, June 17, 2017.

Ø Poker Run: Report by Tonya Peters.  Permit is in.  Currently 9 stops.  Need 1 stop (or 2) on Circle Park Drive.  One bid was gotten regarding stone for Acapulco.  $730.00 from Reese Excavating, for #9 lime stone, spread and dress- up parking lot.  A motion was made to secure the bid with Reese Excavating and proceed with the project.  The motion by Peggy Hayden and second by Jan Biddle.  Motion carried.

Ø Charitable Status: Dennis has research information.

Ø Website: Cathy Wagenknecht will head up committee.  Will look into Trine University program offerings.

A motion to adjourn was made by Peggy Hayden and second by Jan Biddle.  Meeting adjourned at 8:45



2017 Poker Run

 We on the board are glad that you are reading our newsletter, but it contained information that was missing or incorrect.  The 2017 Poker Run is not on the fourth Saturday in July, but the last Saturday in July, the 29th.  Hope to see you there.  HLA Board. 

 Also, please note that dues are $2.40 per running foot and non-lake access entrance is $60.00, not $50.00, as the membership form indicated before today (June 11, 2017).  As we all know, prices do go up and our Board must respond, responsibly.


March, 2017: Lake Board Report for 2016

The Hamilton Lake Association Board is made up of volunteers from each section of the lake, fifteen in all.  Their goal is simply to keep the lake in the best possible condition for residents, visitors, boaters, swimmers and fishermen. 

Easily the single biggest effort concerns control of aquatic weeds, particularly of the non-native variety, such as Eurasian milfoil.  Costs for this effort run to the tens of thousands of dollars annually, and so the Board works constantly to maintain and increase membership in the association and to do all it can to raise funds.

In addition to membership dues and donations, one major fund raiser has been the annual poker run in July (see note above), which provides a fun day for participants and raises substantial funds each year for the HLA's annual expenditures.

Members of the Hamilton Lake community are always welcome to attend monthly board meetings which run on the second Tuesday of the month from April to October at the Hamilton Town Hall at 7:00.  Plan to attend and learn more about YOUR Hamilton Lake Association and its Board of Director


Minutes of the Board of Directors

October 11, 2016

The following gathered at 6:00 p.m. for a board meeting and dinner at the Acapulco Restaurant on October 11, 2016: Dave & Cindy Castor, Clint & Brandi Nester along with their children Tate & Palmer, Dennis & Mary Germann, Ron & Carol Jean Abraham, Ginny & Tom DeBrunner, Tonya Peters & Stan Atha, Jim & Cathy Wagenknecht, Peggy & Paul Hayden, Janet Albright, and Linda Skelly.  Ten board members and ten guests were in attendance.


Minutes of the September 13, 2016 meeting were approved as e-mailed.  A motion for approval was made by Ron Abraham and seconded by Tonya Peters.  Motion carried. 

Treasurer’s Report: The monthly income was $14,372.00, monthly expenses $6,400.00. Bank balance as of 9/30/16 was $277,798.00.  The invoice for a new boat motor has been paid.  Dennis also provided a comparison report of income, expenses, and net cash each year for 2014, 2015, y-t-d 2016, and estimate for 2017.  Dennis reported that Star Financial Bank is closing the Hamilton branch and that he would recommend transferring HLA accounts to Farmers State Bank located here in town.  A motion to do so was made by Jim Wagenknecht and seconded by Peggy Hayden.  Motion carried.  It was also mentioned that the Hamilton Area Chamber of Commerce will be hosting a presentation by Kerry Sprunger, Executive Vice President, and Chief Loan Officer of Farmers State Bank on Monday, October 17.  Mr. Sprunger will be discussing the current state of banking in Hamilton.  He will also share the history of FSB and where they are headed.

Membership: Crystal Bay and Crystal Cove held its annual meeting with 45 people in attendance.  They voted and approved to collect funds as an association and will turn in the assessed weed spray dues for each lot to the HLA.  Crystal Cove paid to have every lot re-surveyed.

 Legislative and Council Coordination:

  •           Steuben County Lakes Council: Jim Wagenknecht sent an e-mail on October 9, 2016 reporting on the SCLC meeting.  Items discussed were: The “Soundings” publication.  Janet submitted an article for Hamilton Lake.  33 planes flew in for the Lake James Annual Fly-In.  Dredging is taking place at Lake James, Clear Lake, and Jimmerson Lake.  Discussion regarding a new septic system for Pokagon Inn.  High levels of e-coli were discussed at West Otter Lake.  Ball Lake is working with Scott Banfield and the state on their e-coli problems.  There was discussion about how to insure the bass boats are not cross contaminating the lakes by bringing evasive weeds on their boats and motors from other lakes.  Jim also attended the Water Quality meeting.  Most discussion was on the 2017 budget.  There was also talk on the existing test sites and adding new sites on the lakes.  Jim talked to Scott Banfield concerning the August Black Creek testing.  The e-coli count was 256.  State maximum is 235.  Scott still needs to send HLA a bill for the extra tests taken at the Schmucker sites. 

Old Business:

  1. Winter Committee Meetings: Janet will send an e-mail regarding committee meetings.

2   Permit for Treatment of Swan Eggs: Peggy Hayden reported that there are plans to apply for the permit.  She will    contact Dave Price.  Paul Hayden’s name is to be on the permit..  .

3.   Stan Atha is going to donate a shore station to the HLA next spring...

New Business:

  1. Possible donation from Woods Acres (originally Waste Watchers).  More detail forthcoming.
  2. Steuben County Community Foundation:  Janet Albright presented information about the SCCF Matching Funds Program.  She will e-mail additional information and ask for input.


A motion to adjourn was made by Dennis Germann and a second by Dave Castor.  Motion carried.



Linda Skelly




Hi everyone,

The holiday weekend was a great start to the summer season :)

The buoys are out!  Thanks to the guys, who had the coldest day of the week, it seemed, to accomplish this necessary, expected, but sometimes, ignored and thankless part of our summer tasks.  We appreciate your hard work!

Both the geese and swan populations are down.  I've only counted five pairs of adult geese with a total of eleven goslings.  I've only seen one swan.  Thanks to the hard work of those involved.  It's not that lakers want to eliminate these birds from the lake; we just need to control the population for the safety and health of our swimmers, skiers, and water craft users.

Thanks to all board members who are distributing the flags.  Ron, sounds like you are taking this opportunity to check residents' addresses which helps Ginny update the database and keep it current.  Great idea!!!

Finally, thanks to Scott, Clint, Pat, and Dennis (and others who responded); they are checking the lake for weeds, making decisions according to our goals, and making sure our budget includes monies to keep the invasive weeds from taking over our lake.

Thanks again for all your hard work!!!

See you on June 9th for our next board meeting...  if not earlier, on or around our beautiful lake :)


A Quick Note from President Janet Albright

2017 Weed Spray Invoice

Please complete the following:

·        Name _______________________________________________

·        Lake Address _______________________________________________

·        Mailing Address if different from Lake Address _____________________

·        If you own more than one lot and or home, please list addresses here:

·        ______________________________________________



#1 Lakefront Footage _________@ $2.40 per lakefront foot __________

#2 Weed Spray for Deeded Lake Access $60.00 (minimum)   __________

Flag available with payment of weed spray $10.00 _________________

Donation to Hamilton Lake Assoc._______________________________

(see newsletter for explanation)                    Total Paid ___________________


·        If you received this invoice and paid weed spray thru an Association (i.e. condominium, mobile home park or other), please e-mail the HLA this information listing your lake address and mailing address for our records.  Thank you.

Please return the completed invoice with payment to: 
Hamilton Lake Association
P.O. Box 515
Hamilton, IN 46742

If you received this billing in error, i.e. no longer own the property, please call and/or e-mail the HLA to correct this information.  Thank you for your assistance in keeping the HLA records up to date.Ginny DeBrunner 260-488-2394

e-mail: deboca1980@yahoo.com

The Hamilton Lake Association is a 501.C3 not-for-profit organization.  All donations are tax deductible.


UPDATE: Black Creek, The Final Picture

Donations to HLA can be mailed to P.O. 515, Hamilton, IN 46742

Four hundred feet of fieldstone was added to the outer banks of Black Creek by Bill Martins, Bob Snare, Al Byers, Dennis Germann and Steve Wood, with help from Reese Excavating.  Cost of this last project will run between $4500 and $5000.  As ALWAYS, donations are greatly appreciated by the Hamilton Lake Association.

 The top pictures here show the dredging pump at work at the mouth of Black Creek.  The bottom two show the holding facility for sediment immediately north of the Cold Springs Golf Course.

In addition to checking on the dredging project at the “Lake Events” page, check also the article on Hamilton Lake Pike on the “Science” page of our web site.

Northern Pike Sampling
Check the video at http://vimeo.com/channels/clearlakeindiana

See article on Mute Swans on Lake Science page

What to do about the large and increasing number of mute swans on Hamilton Lake.....